A retrospective identification of risk factors associated with fetal macrosomia

Terence Moodley, Jagidesa Moodley

Abstract

Despite extensive work on macrosomia, it is impossible to predict women at risk. Current prediction strategies which include clinical examination and ultrasound are imprecise. This study aims to determine the risk factors associated with macrosomia. It was a descriptive, retrospective chart review of women delivered of macrosomic neonates over a two-year period from 2015-2016. Detailed clinical and demographic information was recorded. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS (version 25.0 IBM, Armonk, New York, USA). Of 22 244 singleton deliveries, 415 were macrosomic infants (1.9%). The mean birth weight for macrosomic infants was 4.39 ± 0.43 (range 4-5.15) kg and males were more in number and weight. Macrosomic infants occurred more in age groups 25-29 years and peaked with BMI ≥30 kg/m2 . Majority were cesarean sections compared to vaginal deliveries (56.6% vs 43.4%; p=0.006) respectively. Vaginal delivery of macrosomic infants was associated with complications. Significant differences were found between fetal macrosomia and clinical characteristics such as body mass index, parity, advanced maternal age, and male fetal sex. Hypoglycaemia was most frequent in infants born to non-diabetic mothers (98.1%). Antenatal risk factors are important in the prediction of macrosomia, but fetal and maternal outcome depends on labour management. (Afr J Reprod Health 2022; 26[7]: 127-134).

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