Personal elearning management in the context of COVID-19 among university students in Saudi Arabia

Badr A. Alharbi, Usama M. Ibrahem, Mahmoud A. Moussa, Mona A. Alrashidy, Shimaa M. Abdelwahab, Bahgat A. Radi, Hanan M. Diab


The study aimed to study the performance expectation in future tasks based on personal learning management during the Corona epidemic. A random sample of 871 students from the University of Hail was selected. The study samples were from humanities, engineering, and medical colleges. The study was based on a cross-sectional study design. The study prepared a measure of future expectation of performance on the tasks. The scale is 28 items. Factor analysis was used to verify the validity of the scale, and the scale achieved acceptable indicators of good fit. The scale achieved acceptable stability using Cronbach's alpha coefficient for emotional factor 0.57, cognitive factor 0.94, and behavioral factor 0.90. The results revealed that there are differences in the future expectation on performance because of gender and type of college. The results revealed that there are positive correlations between future expectation of cognitive and emotional performance, as well as a positive relationship between emotional and behavioral performance. There was also a negative relationship between behavioral and cognitive performance. (Afr J Reprod Health 2024; 28 [4]: 111-126).

Full Text:



Karademir, A, Yaman, F and Saatçioglu Ö. Challenges of

Higher Education Institutions against COVID-19: The

Case of Turkey. Journal of Pedagogical Research,

, 4(4), 453-474.

Jandri P. Safeguard research in the time of COVID-19.

Nature Medicine, 2020, 26(4), 443.

Kolb AY and Kolb DA. Learning styles and learning spaces:

Enhancing experiential learning in higher education.

Academy of management learning & education. 2005

Jun 1;4(2):193-212.

Wei W, Mejia C and Qi R. A personal learning environment

(PLE) approach to mobile teaching and learning on a

short-term study abroad. Journal of Hospitality,

Leisure, Sport & Tourism Education. 2021 Nov


Minjing H. Research on Autonomous Learning from the

Perspective of Big Data in Personal Learning

Environment--a Case Study of Zhaoqing. Advances in

Educational Technology and Psychology. 2022 Jan


Kupchyk L and Litvinchuk A. Constructing personal learning

environments through ICT-mediated foreign language

instruction. InJournal of physics: Conference series

Mar 1 (Vol. 1840, No. 1, p. 012045). IOP


Corlăţean T. Risks, Discrimination and Opportunities for

Education during the Times of COVID-19 Pandemic.

InProceedings of the 17th International RAIS

Conference on Social Sciences and Humanities (pp.

-46). Scientia Moralitas Research Institute.

Bernard RM, Borokhovski E, Schmid RF, Tamim RM and

Abrami PC. A meta-analysis of blended learning and

technology use in higher education: From the general

to the applied. Journal of Computing in Higher

Education. 2014 Apr;26:87-122.

Ryan S, Kaufman J, Greenhouse J, She R and Shi J. The

effectiveness of blended online learning courses at the

community college level. Community College Journal

of Research and Practice. 2016 Apr 2;40(4):285-98.

Lockman AS and Schirmer BR. Online instruction in higher education: Promising, research-based, and evidence-based practices. Journal of Education and e-Learning

Research. 2020;7(2):130-52.

Zhou L, Wu S, Zhou M and Li F. 'School’s out, but class’

on', the largest online education in the world today:

Taking China’s practical exploration during The

COVID-19 epidemic prevention and control as an

example. Best evid chin edu. 2020 Mar 15;4(2):501-

Cottini M, Basso D and Palladino P. Improving prospective

memory in school-aged children: Effects of future

thinking and performance predictions. Journal of

Experimental Child Psychology. 2021 Apr


Moè A, Hausmann M and Hirnstein M. Gender stereotypes

and incremental beliefs in STEM and non-STEM

students in three countries: Relationships with

performance in cognitive tasks. Psychological

research. 2021 Mar;85(2):554-67.

Baber H. Determinants of students’ perceived learning

outcome and satisfaction in online learning during the

pandemic of COVID-19. Journal of Education and elearning Research. 2020 Aug 23;7(3):285-92.

Gurajena C, Mbunge E and Fashoto S. Teaching and

learning in the new normal: Opportunities and

challenges of distance learning amid COVID-19

pandemic. Available at SSRN 3765509. 2021.

Sangrà A, Vlachopoulos D and Cabrera N. Building an

inclusive definition of e-learning: An approach to the

conceptual framework. International Review of

Research in Open and Distributed Learning. 2012


Muthuprasad T, Aiswarya S, Aditya KS and Jha GK.

Students’ perception and preference for online

education in India during COVID-19 pandemic.

Social sciences & humanities open. 2021 Jan


Alblaihed MA, Ibrahem UM, Altamimi AB, Alqirnas HR

and Salem MI. Infosphere Is Reshaping: How the

Internet of Things Leads Smart Campuses for

Knowledge Management. Sustainability. 2022 Oct


Ibrahem UM, AlMankory AZ, Abdelfatah HM, Kedwany

DM, Diab IM and Kader RA. MOOC-based eplatform during the Corona pandemic to qualify and

train women to achieve sustainable development:

obstacles, needs, and impacts. Environment,

Development and Sustainability. 2023 Aug 17:1-32.

Miao F, Huang R, Liu D and Zhuang R. Ensuring effective

distance learning during COVID-19 disruption,

Guidance for teachers, United Nations Educational,

Scientific and Cultural Organization, ED2020/WS/44 CLD 779. 2020, 20, -1-76.

Ibrahem UM, Abdelfatah HM, Kedwany DM, AlMankory

AZ, Diab IM and Abdul Kader RA. The Drivers of

Change for Future Learning: How Teachers Were

Taught in the COVID-19 Crisis and What Will Come

Next?. Sustainability. 2023 Oct 11;15(20):14766.

Alharbi BA, Ibrahem UM, Moussa MA, Alrashidy MA and

Saleh SF. Parents’ digital skills and their development

in the context of the Corona pandemic. Humanities

and Social Sciences Communications, 2023; 10(1), 1-

Bahri A, Idris IS and Hasmunarti M. Blended learning

integrated with innovative learning strategy to

improve self-regulated learning. InJournal of Physics:

Conference Series 2021 (Vol. 14, No. 1, pp. 779-794).

Faculty of Education, Eskisehir Osmangazi


Dabbagh N and Kitsantas A. Personal Learning

Environments, social media, and self-regulated

learning: A natural formula for connecting formal and

informal learning. The Internet and higher education.

Jan 1;15(1):3-8.

Fiedler SH and Väljataga T. Modeling the personal adult

learner: The concept of PLE re-interpreted. Interactive

Learning Environments. 2020 Aug 17;28(6):658-70.

Lu H, Jia L, Gong SH and Clark B. The relationship of Kolb

learning styles, online learning behaviors and learning

outcomes. Journal of Educational Technology &

Society. 2007 Oct 1;10(4):187-96.

Richmond AS and Cummings R. Implementing Kolb’s

learning styles into online distance education.

International journal of Technology in Teaching and

Learning. 2005;1(1):45-54.

Fisher CD, Minbashian A, Beckmann N and Wood RE. Task

appraisals, emotions, and performance goal

orientation. Journal of Applied Psychology. 2013


Horng JS, Hsiao HL, Liu CH, Chou SF and Chung YC.

Learning innovative entrepreneurship: Developing an

influential curriculum for undergraduate hospitality

students. Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport &

Tourism Education. 2021 Nov 1;29:100289.

Orsini C, Binnie V, Evans P, Ledezma P, Fuentes F and

Villegas MJ. Psychometric validation of the academic

motivation scale in a dental student sample. Journal of

dental education. 2015 Aug;79(8):971-81.

Terrett G, Rendell PG, Raponi-Saunders S, Henry JD,

Bailey PE and Altgassen M. Episodic future thinking

in children with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of

Autism and Developmental Disorders. 2013


Camacho-Morles J, Slemp GR, Pekrun R, Loderer K, Hou

H and Oades LG. Activity achievement emotions and

academic performance: A meta-analysis. Educational

Psychology Review. 2021 Sep;33(3):1051-95.

Pekrun R, Frenzel AC, Goetz T and Perry RP. The controlvalue theory of achievement emotions: An integrative

approach to emotions in education. InEmotion in

education 2007 Jan 1 (pp. 13-36). Academic Press.

Waheed H, Hassan SU, Aljohani NR, Hardman J, Alelyani S and Nawaz R. Predicting academic performance of

students from VLE big data using deep learning

models. Computers in Human behavior. 2020 Mar


Keith TZ. Multiple regression and beyond: An introduction

to multiple regression and structural equation

modeling. Routledge, 2019.

Francis BK and Babu SS. Predicting academic performance

of students using a hybrid data mining approach.

Journal of medical systems. 2019 Jun;43(6):162.

Ibrahem UM, Abdelfatah HM, Kedwany DM, AlMankory

AZ, Diab IM and Abdul Kader RA. The Drivers of

Change for Future Learning: How Teachers Were

Taught in the COVID-19 Crisis and What Will Come

Next?. Sustainability. 2023 Oct 11;15(20):14766.

García-Garnica M, Martínez-Martínez A, Tomé-Fernández

M and Olmedo-Moreno EM. The personal learning

environment of unaccompanied foreign minors in

Spain. Journal of International Migration and

Integration. 2021:1-24.

Dai HM, Teo T, Rappa NA and Huang F. Explaining

Chinese university students’ continuance learning

intention in the MOOC setting: A modified

expectation confirmation model perspective.

Computers & Education. 2020 Jun 1;150:103850.

Kristoffersen I. Great expectations: Education and

subjective wellbeing. Journal of Economic

Psychology. 2018 Jun 1;66:64-78.

Pekrun R and Perry RP. Control-value theory of

achievement emotions. InInternational handbook of

emotions in education 2014 Apr 16 (pp. 120-141).


Tondeur J, Van Braak J and Ertmer PA, Ottenbreit-Leftwich

A. Understanding the relationship between teachers’

pedagogical beliefs and technology use in education:

a systematic review of qualitative evidence.

Educational technology research and development.


Zedan A. A Program Based on Connectivism for Creating

Personal Learning Environments to Develop EFL

Prospective Teachers' Instructional Performance: A

Oct بحوث فى تدريس اللغات. 2021 .Study Case


Alharbi BA, Ibrahem UM, Moussa MA, Abdelwahab SM

and Diab HM. COVID-19 the gateway for future

learning: The impact of online teaching on the future

learning environment. Education Sciences. 2022 Dec


Seli H. Motivation and learning strategies for college

success: A focus on self-regulated learning.

Routledge; 2019 Aug 30.

Chudaeva E. Note-taking habits of online learners: a

postphenomenological study.

Farhaan SH, Hasan MM, Ghani FM and Mansoor N.

Enhancing Student Engagement and Performance

Evaluation: An Integrated Approach for Quality

Learning Management System. In World Conference

on Information Systems for Business Management,

, September, 221-31). Singapore: Springer

Nature Singapore.


  • There are currently no refbacks.