Clinical and genetic characteristics of disorders of sex development in Sudanese patients

Manal M.E.A. Elkareem, Houda M. Dguimi, Samia M. Ahmed, Rayan Khalid, Imad Fadl-Elmula

Abstract

Given the scarce data on DSD in Sudan, we aimed to characterize DSD's clinical and genetic profile in Sudanese patients. We studied 60 patients with DSD using clinical data, cytogenetics, and PCR for the SRY gene. The results showed that 65% grew up as females and 35% as males. There was a high percentage of consanguineous parents (85%). Female genital mutilation (FGM) was performed in 75% of females. Patients who presented after pubertal age were 63%, with ambiguous genitalia in 61.7%, followed by primary amenorrhea (PA) in 30%. The SRY gene was positive in 3.3% of patients with 46,XX karyotype and negative in 6.7% of patients with 46,XY karyotype. 5αR2D-DSD was seen in 43.3%, gonadal dysgenesis in 21.7%, Ovotesticular syndrome in 6.7%, Swyer and Turner syndrome in 5% each, and Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome (AIS) in 3.3%. In conclusion, DSD in Sudan has a distinct profile with late presentation, dominated by 5αR2D-DSD due to the increased consanguineous marriage, and FGM represents a significant risk for DSD patients. (Afr J Reprod Health 2024; 28 [4]: 13-21).

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