Climate change and women employment in agriculture in the Sahel region: An empirical insight

Bai Liu, Xiujian Liao, Qihang Chen, Fanyan Liu, Haowei Lei


In recent times, the Sahel region has been particularly identified as the flash point of climate change crisis in Africa, due to the persistent reliance on both biophysical factors and natural resources, especially agriculture for economic livelihood. Against this scenario, this study provides an empirical evidence to establish the nexus between climate change and women employment in agriculture within the Sahel region. The study employed panel data from 1990 to 2020 of 9 countries within the Sahel region. Consequently, a panel Fully Modified Ordinary Least Squares (FMOLS) was used to estimate the relationship between the variables of interest. Thus, the results showed that about 60% of women in the Sahel region are actively employed in agriculture. However, change in rainfall pattern has a significant adverse effect on women employment in agriculture. In view of these findings, we conclude that a rise in women’s employment in agriculture would be mitigated if adverse effects of changes in rainfall pattern are controlled. Additionally, policymakers should be proactive in policy formulation that increases the region’s resilience and adaptation to the future adverse effects of agriculturally induced climate change. (Afr J Reprod Health 2023; 27 [10]: 123-132).

Full Text:



Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Fourth

assessment report 2007: Retrieved from:, on July 2, 2009.

Carter C, Cui X, Ghanem D and Mérel P. Identifying the

economic impacts of climate change on agriculture.

Annual Review of Resource Economics (2018):

(1): 1-24; DOI: 10.1146/annurev-resource-100517-

Pachauri RK, Allen MR, Barros VR, Broome J, Cramer W,

Christ R, Church JA, Clarke L, Dahe Q and Dasgupta

P. Climate change 2014: synthesis report.

Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the

fifth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel

on Climate Change. IPCC; 2014.

CAN. National security and the threat of climate change, The

CAN Corporation, Alexandria, Virginia, 2007.

IPCC. Global Warming of 1.5°C: Special Report,

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Geneva

Sartori N, and Fattibene D. Human security and climate

change vulnerabilities in the Sahel (Euromesco Brief

No. 94, 2019 Retrieved from

/Brief94_Human Security-and-ClimateChange_Vulnerabilities-in-theSahel.pdf

Pye O. The Sahel: Europe’s forever war?. Centre for

European Reform, 2021.


Hilden M, Lahn G, Carter TR, Klein, RJT, Otto IM, Pohl B,

Reyer, CPO and Tondel F. Cascading climate impacts:

A new factor in European policy-making.

CASCADES project policy brief,


Biasutti M. Rainfall trends in the African Sahel:

Characteristics, processes, and causes. Wiley

Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, e591,

Retrieved from

USAID. (2017). Climate change risk profile: West Africa

Sahel (Regional fact sheet). Retrieved

Njieassam E.E. Gender inequality and land rights: The

situation of indigenous women in Cameroon.

Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal 2019: 5: 1–33.

https://doi. org/10.17159/1727-


Allen T, Heinrigs P and Heo I. Agriculture, food and jobs in

West Africa. West African Papers, No. 14, 2018.

OECD Publishing,


FAO. FAO Statistical Yearbook 2014: Africa Food and

Agriculture, The Food and Agriculture Organization

of the United Nations, Accra,

World Bank. World Bank Country and Lending Groups,

Country Classifications. World Bank Washington


base/topics/19280 country classification

Molua EL. Farm income, gender differentials and climate

risk in Cameroon: typology of male and female

adaptation options across agroecologies.

Sustainability Science 2011: 6(1):21–

Akinseye FM, Ajayi V O and Oladitan T O. Assessing the

impacts of climate variability on crop yield over

Sudano-Sahelian Zone in Nigeria. International

Journal of Agricultural Science 2013: 1(7): 91–98.

Recha CW, Makokha GL and Shisanya CA. Climate

variability and causes: from the perspective of the

Tharaka People of Eastern Kenya. Geoscience Letters

: 4(1): 1–8.


Adeoti AI, Coster AS and Akanni TA. Analysis of farmers’

vulnerability, perception and adaptation to climate

change in Kwara State, Nigeria. International Journal

of Climate Research 2016: 1(1): 1–


Ugwu P. Women in agriculture: Challenges facing women

in African farming. Project report of African women

in agriculture, 2019. viewed 03 October

, from



Anugwa IQ, Obossou, EAR, Onyeneke, RU and Chah JM.

Gender perspectives in vulnerability of

Nigeria’s agriculture to climate change impacts: A

Systematic Review. Geo Journal 2023: 88 (1): 1139-

Duru, J. Aro, J. and Oladipo, R. E. (2022). The effects

of climate change on the livelihood of rural women:

A case study of Ilorin South. Nigeria, Bulletin of the

National Research Centre, 46, 165

Ngum F and Bastiaensen J. Intersectional perspective of

strengthening climate change adaptation of agrarian

women in Cameroon. African Handbook of Climate

Change Adaptation, 2021; 2169-2191.

Praag LV, Lietaer S and Michellier C. A qualitative study on

how perceptions of environmental changes are linked

to migration in Morocco, Senegal, and DR Congo.

Human Ecology 2021: 1-15.

Ifeanyi-Obi CC and Ugorji EC. Effect of social exclusion on

climate change adaptation of female arable crop

farmers in Abia State, Nigeria. South African

Journal of Agricultural Extension 2020: 48 (1): 55-69.

Akinbami CAO, Olawoye JE, Adesina, FA and Nelson V.

Exploring potential climate-related entrepreneurship

opportunities and challenges for rural Nigerian

women. Journal of Global Entrepreneurship Research


Azong M, Kelso CJ and Naidoo K. Vulnerability and

resilience of female farmers in Oku, Cameroon, to

climate change. African Sociological Review/Revue

Africaine de Sociologie 2018: 22(1): 31-53.

Gray C and Wise E. Country-specific effects of climate

variability on human migration. Climatic change2016:

, 555-568.

Hummel D. Climate change, land degradation and migration

in Mali and Senegal; some policy implications.

Migration and Development 2016: 5(2): 211-233.

Van der Land V and Hummel D. Vulnerability and the role

of education in environmentally induced migration in

Mali and Senegal. Ecology and Society 2013:18 (4):


Yila, J. O. and Bernadette, P. R. (2013). Determinants of

smallholder farmers’ adaptation strategies to

climate change in the semi-arid Nguru local

government area, Northeastern Nigeria. Management

of Environmental Quality: An International Journal,

(3), 341-364.

Goh A. A literature review of the gender-differentiated

impacts of climate change on women’s and men’s

assets and well-being in developing countries. CAPRi

Working Paper 2012.

Molua EL. Farm income, gender differentials and climate

risk in Cameroon: typology of male and female

adaptation options across Agroecologies. Sustain Sci,

:6:21–35 DOI 10.1007/s11625-010-0123-z

Mertz O, Mbow C, Reenberg A and Diouf A. Farmers’

perceptions of climate change and agricultural

adaptation strategies in rural Sahel. Environmental

Management 2009: 43, 804–816 DOI


Molua EL. Turning up the heat on African agriculture: the

impact of climate change on Cameroon’s agriculture.

African Journal of Agricultural and Resource

Economics 2008: 2(311-2016-5519): 45-64.

Imeokparia L, Olaoye OP, Bello BA, Osabohien R,

Aderemi TA, Gershon O, Abidemi A. A Panel

Analysis of Crude Oil Exports and Poverty Reduction

in African Oil Producing Countries: Implication for

the Sustainable Development Goal One. International

Journal of Energy Economics and Policy 2023:


Matthew O, Osabohien R, Omosehin OO, Jawaid N,

Aderemi T, Olanrewaju O and Evans-Osabuohien PN.

Information and communication technology

deployment and agricultural value chain nexus in

Nigeria. Heliyon, 2023.

Aderemi TA, Alejo A, Omoyele OS, Olaoye OP,

Olanipekun WD and Azuh DE. An Econometric

Analysis of Clean Energy Supply and Industrial

Development in Nigeria: Implications for Sustainable

Development. International Journal of Energy

Economics and Policy 2022: 12(3): 209-215.

Aderemi TA, Omitogun Oand Osisanwo BG. Effect of FDI

inflows on employment generation in selected

ECOWAS countries: Heterogeneous Panel Analysis.

Central Bank of Nigeria Journal of Applied Statistics

: 13(1): 241-263.

World Bank. World Development Indicators 2023.



Bogliaccini JA and Egan PJ. Foreign direct investment and

inequality in developing countries: does sector

matter? Econ. Polit. 2017: 29(3): 209–23.

Osabohien RR, Olurinola IO, Matthew OA, Edafe OD.

Youth Farmers, Shocks and Food Security in Nigeria.

In IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental

Science 2021: 665(1) 012037. IOP Publishing.


  • There are currently no refbacks.