Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Dislike for schooling as risk factor for teenage pregnancy: Development of a hypothesis using data from a study conducted on understanding factors associated with teenage pregnancy

Gert Van Rooy, Paulus Mwetulundila, Gilbert Likando


This paper is informed by the data extracted from a study conducted by the Multidisciplinary Research Centre (MRC) in 2014, titled, ‘Understanding Factors Associated with Teenage Pregnancy in Namibia’ that focused on 602 boys and 2875 girls aged between 14 to 22 years of age. The aim of the paper was to test the hypothesis of dislike of school as a catalyst to teenage pregnancy. The analysis of the paper is based on 1,393 school learners that were all female. In testing the hypothesis both univariate and multivariate regression analysis were used. No clear associations were found between dislike of school and attitudes and behaviours (outcome measures) which may predict the risk of subsequent teenage pregnancy except for alcohol use and parental employment. Parental employment as proxy for socio-economic status emerged as a significant predictor of unhappiness at school while higher levels of alcohol use predicted higher odds of dislike of school. Interventions to promote youth satisfaction with schooling should be based on longitudinal research to inform effective policy and practice.. (Afr J Reprod Health 2021; 25[6]: 58-67).

Full Text:



Bonell C, Allen E, Strange V, Copas A, Oakley A, Stephenson J and Johnson A. The effect of dislike of school on risk of teenage pregnancy: testing of hypotheses using longitudinal data from a randomised trial of sex education Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health 2005; 59: 223-230.

Haldre K, Rahu K, Rahu M and Karro H. Individual and familial factors associated with teenage pregnancy: An interview study. European Journal of Public Health, 2009; 19(3): 266–270. Retrieved from, 05/05/14.

Kanku J, Mash B. Attitudes, perceptions and understanding amongst teenagers regarding teenage pregnancy, sexuality and contraception in Taung. South African Family Practice, 201052(6), 563–572. Retrieved from,, 05/05/14.

Panday S, Ranchod C, Letsoalo T and Makiwane M. Teenage pregnancy in South Africa: With a specific focus on school-going learners. 2009; Pretoria: HSRC.

Maemeko EL, Nkengbeza D and Chokomosi TM. The Impact of Teenage Pregnancy on Academic Performance of Grade 7 Learners at a School in the Zambezi Region. Open Journal of Social Sciences 2018; 6: 88-100.

Bhana D, Morrell R, Shefer Tand Ngabaza S. South African teachers' responses to teenage pregnancy and teenage mothers in schools, Culture, Health & Sexuality. 2010 12:8, 871-883, DOI: 10.1080/13691058.2010.50039.

Hoffman SD. Teenage childbearing is not so bad after all...or is it? A review of the new literature. Family Planning Perspectives, 1998 30 (5), 236–239, 243. Retrieved from,, 05/05/14.

The Namibia Ministry of Health and Social Services (MoHSS) and ICF International. The Namibia Demographic and Health Survey 2013; Windhoek, Namibia, and Rockville, Maryland, USA: MoHSS and ICF International 2014.

Wellings K, Wadsworth J, Johnson A, Field J and Macdowall W. Teenage fertility and life chances. Reviews of Reproduction 1999; 4: 184–190. Retrieved from,, 05/05/14.

Gyan C. The effects of teenage pregnancy on the educational attainment of girls at Chorkor, a suburb of Accra. Journal of Educational and Social Research 2013; 3 (3): 53-60.

Ministry of Education, Arts and Culture (Namibia) and United Nations Children’s Fund Namibia’s National Safe Schools Framework 2018; downloaded from: pdf.

Bonell C, Allen E, Strange V, Copas A, Oakley A, Stephenson J and Johnson A. The effect of dislike of school on risk of teenage pregnancy: testing of hypotheses using longitudinal data from a randomised trial of sex education. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 2003; 57: 871-876.

Bonell C. Allen E, Strange V, Oakley A, Copas A, Johnson A and Stephenson J. Influence of family type and parenting behaviours on teenage sexual behaviour and conceptions. Journal of epidemiology and community health 2006; 60(6): 502–506.

Wiggins M, Oakley A, Sawtell M, Austerberry H, Clemens F and Elbourne D. Teenage Parenthood and Social Exclusion: A Multi-Method Study: Summary Report of Findings, London: Social Science Research Unit Report, Institute of Education 2005; Downloaded from:

Parkes A, Waylen A, Sayal K, Heron J, Henderson M, Wight D and Macleod J. Which behavioural, emotional and school problems in middle-childhood predict early sexual behavior? Journal of Youth and Adolescence 2014; 43(4): 507–527.

Hosie A. ‘I Hated Everything About School’: An Examination of the Relationship between Dislike of School, Teenage Pregnancy and Educational Disengagement. Social Policy & Society 2007; 6(3): 333–347.

Timaeus IM, Moultrie TA. Teenage Childbearing and Educational Attainment in South Africa. Studies in family planning, 2015 46 (2). pp. 143-60. ISSN 0039-3665 DOI: x 2015. Downloaded from:

Indongo N, Van Rooy G and Shapi M. Understanding factors associated with teenage pregnancy in Namibia 2015; Windhoek: Multidisciplinary Research Centre, University of Namibia.

Yakubu, Salisu WJ. Determinants of adolescent pregnancy in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review. Reprod Health 2018; 15 Downloaded from:

Cater S, Coleman L. "Planned" Teenage Pregnancy: Perspectives of Young Parents from Disadvantaged Backgrounds 2006; Joseph Rowntree Foundation. ISBN1861348746, 9781861348746. Downloaded from:

World Health Organisation (WHO). 2013; Global School-based Student Health Survey Namibia downloaded from,

Mudumbi KM. Learner absenteeism: A case study of rural primary schools in Kavango East. Journal of Namibian Studies 2017; 22: 59 – 80.

Harding DJ. Counterfactual Models of Neighbourhood Effects: The Effect of Neighbourhood Poverty on Dropping Out and Teenage Pregnancy1 American Journal of Sociology 2003; 103(3):

Njau B, Mwakalo V and Mushi D. Correlates of use of condoms among sexually active youth in southern highlands, Tanzania. SAGE Open. 2013; 3:2158244013491406.

Yibing L, Zhang W, Liu J, Arbeit MR, Schwartz SJ, Bowers EP, Liu J and Learner RM. The role of school engagement in preventing adolescent delinquency and substance use: A survival analysis. Journal of Adolescence, 2011; 34(6): 1181–1192. doi:10.1016/j. adolescence.2011.07.003.

Connery HS, Albright BB and Rodolico JM. Adolescent substance use and unplanned pregnancy: strategies for risk reduction. Obstetrics and gynaecology clinics of North America 2014; 41(2): 191–203.

Kauaria LN, Kaundjua MB and Mufune P. Drinking and its effects on risk behaviour amongst secondary school going youth in Windhoek. Journal for Studies in Humanities and Social Sciences 2015; 4(1): 2026-7215.

Ananias JA, Makhubele JC, Hasheela MW, Hamuse TNI, Freeman RJ, Mafa, P and Svinurai A. Views of Teachers and Hostel Matrons on the Landscape of Substance Abuse amongst the Youth in the Northern Region of Namibia. Global Journal of Health Science 2019; 11(5): 133-143. Downloaded from:


  • There are currently no refbacks.