Factors associated with the number of antenatal care visits among internally displaced women in northern Nigeria

Fisayo T Adebangbe, Akim J Mturi


This study explored the factors associated with the uptake of antenatal care services among internally displaced women (IDW) in northern Nigeria. The sample included ANC visits for 422 respondents who had a birth five years before the survey and living in the selected camps. Multinomial logistic regression was applied. Findings showed that only 28% of women visited ANC clinics for the recommended number of visits. IDW with some form of education were significantly more likely to have attended four or more ANC visits compared to the IDW with no education. Other covariates found to have a significant relationship with four or more ANC visits include, camp of displacement and access to newspaper. To improve uptake of ANC to fit the recommendations of the WHO and meet SDG3, the government and humanitarian organizations should continue to use media as a tool for advocacy in educating women on the benefits of complying with the recommended number of ANC uptake. (Afr J Reprod Health 2021; 25[2]: 120-130).

Full Text:



Internal Displacement Monitoring Center (IDMC)

Internal displacement. 2018. Retrieved from


International Organization for Migration (IOM). IOM

framework for addressing internaldisplacement. 2017. https://reliefweb.int/report/world/iom-framework-addressing-internal displacement.

DeJong J, Ghattas H and Bashour H. Reproductive,

maternal, neonatal and child health in conflict: a case study on Syria using Countdown indicators.BMJ Global Health.2017; 2: 00302. doi:10.1136/bmjgh-2017-000302.

Janssens K, Bosmans ME and Temmerman M. Sexual

and reproductive health of asylum and refugee women in Europe: Entitlements and Access to Health Services. Journal of Global Ethics. 2006; 183-196.

World Health Organization. Global health observatory

[http://www.who.int/ gho/maternal_health/en/index.html].2016.

Wilunda C, Scanagatta C, Putoto G, Montalbetti F,

Segafredo G, Takahashi R and Betrán AP. Barriers to utilisation of antenatal care services in South Sudan: a qualitative study inRumbek North County. Reproductive Health. 2017;14(1): 65.

National Population Commission (NPC) [Nigeria] and

ICF International. Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey 2013. Abuja, Nigeria, and Rockville, Maryland, USA: NPC and

ICF International.2014.

Tunçalp Ӧ, Were WM, MacLennan C, Oladapo OT,

Gülmezoglu AM, Bahl R and KristensenF. Quality of care for pregnant women and newborns—the WHO vision. BJOG: International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology. 2015; 122(8):1045–1049.

Okonofua F, Imosemi D, Igboin B, Adeyemi A, Chibuko

C, Idowu A and Imongan W. Maternaldeath review and outcomes: An assessment in Lagos State, Nigeria. PloS One. 2017; 12(12).

Andersen R and Newman JF. Societal and individual

determinants of medical care utilization in the United States. Milbank Memorial Fund Quarterly: Health and Society. 1973; 51(1):95–124

Braimah, T. S. (2014). Child marriage in Northern

Nigeria: Section 61 of Part I of the 1999 Constitution and the protection of children against child marriage.African Human Rights Law Journal, 14(2), 474–488.

Ononokpono DN and Odimegwu CO. Determinants of

Maternal Health Care Utilization in Nigeria: a multilevel approach. Pan African Medical Journal. 2014; 17(1): 2.

Adewuyi, E. O., Auta, A., Khanal, V., Bamidele, O. D.,

Akuoko, C. P., Adefemi, K.,Zhao, Y. (2018). Prevalence and factors associated with underutilization of antenatal care services in Nigeria: A comparative study of rural and urban residences based on the 2013 Nigeria demographic and health survey.PloS One, 13(5), e0197324.

Fagbamigbe, A. F., &Idemudia, E. S. (2017). Wealth and

antenatal care utilization in Nigeria: policy implications. Health Care for Women International, 38(1),17–37.

Fagbamigbe AF and Idemudia ES (2015) Assessment of

quality of antenatal care services in Nigeria: evidence from a population-based survey. Reproductive Health, 12:88.doi:10.1186/s12978-015-0081-0.

Nsibu, C. N., Manianga, C., Kapanga, S., Mona, E.,

Pululu, P., &Aloni, M. N. (2016). Determinants of Antenatal Care Attendance among Pregnant Women Living in Endemic Malaria Settings: Experience from the Democratic Republic of Congo. Obstetrics and gynecology international, 2016, 5423413. https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/5423413.

Finlayson K and Downe S. Why do women not use

antenatal services in low- and middle-income countries? A meta-synthesis of qualitative studies. PLoS medicine. 2013;10(1).

Rahman MM, Ngadan DP and Arif MT. Factors affecting

satisfaction on antenatal care services in Sarawak, Malaysia: evidence from a cross sectional study. SpringerPlus. 2016; 5(1):725.

Iyaniwura CA and Yussuf Q. Utilization of antenatal care

and delivery services in Sagamu, south western Nigeria. African Journal of Reproductive Health. 2009; 13(3):111-122.


  • There are currently no refbacks.