Possible association and co-existence of schistosome infection and prostate cancer: A systematic review

Emilia T. Choto, Takafira Mduluza, Elopy N. Sibanda, Francisca Mutapi, Moses J. Chimbari

Abstract

Male genital schistosomiasis (MGS) may result in eggs lodged in the prostate causing persistent inflammation that may play a major role in prostate carcinogenesis. Globally, prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most common cancers and the global distribution of PCa overlaps with that of schistosomiasis infections, suggesting a probable causal relationship. Objectives of this review were to assess evidence of co-existence of schistosomiasis and PCa and possible causal association between the two diseases. Relevant literature published between 1950 and 2019 yielded 20 publications on schistosomiasis and PCa co-existence. Schistosoma (S.) haematobium and S. mansoni were associated with MGS manifestation and mostly prostate adenocarcinoma diagnosis. Effects of prostatic MGS infection progressed over time with high Schistosoma egg burden thought to contribute to the development of PCa. Causal association and mechanistic pathways of MGS on PCa development and the role of Schistosoma eggs on the development of PCa remains unestablished. (Afr J Reprod Health 2020; 24[4]: 185-197).

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