The Epidemiology of COVID-19: A Review

Joseph A. Balogun

Abstract

COVID-19 is a new lethal disease with limited information on its transmissibility, the severity of its sequelae, its clinical manifestations, and epidemiology. This commentary analyzed the global epidemiology of COVID-19 among the vulnerable population. The analysis revealed that most pediatric COVID-19 cases are not severe, but related severe illness still occurs in children. All ages of children are susceptible to COVID-19, and no significant gender difference exists. COVID-19 infection during pregnancy produced fatal outcomes for mothers, but less risky for the baby. The hot spot clusters for COVID-19 are the prisons/jails, nursing/group homes, and long-term facilities where most of the vulnerable populations reside. Ethnic minority groups in the USA and UK are disproportionately exposed to COVID-19 infection and death than Caucasians. The difference may be because ethnic minorities are exposed to higher risks at work and the long-standing structural economic and health disparities in the two countries. There are now changes in guidelines on who is qualified to receive ventilators in dire situations in many countries around the world if the healthcare system is overwhelmed. (Afr J Reprod Health 2020 (Special Edition); 24[2]: 117-124).

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