Factors Associated with Choice of Non-Facility Delivery among Women Attending Antenatal Care in Bali Local Government Area of Taraba State, North-Eastern Nigeria

Sonnen Atinge, Babatunde E Ogunnowo, Mobolanle Balogun


One intervention that is widely believed to reduce the high maternal mortality in resource-poor countries including Nigeria is delivery in health facilities under skilled birth attendance. However, the practice of non-facility delivery is still common in these countries. Curiously, women who attend ANC in health facilities are also among those who choose to deliver in a non-facility. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in Bali LGA of Taraba State, Nigeria. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to select 320 women of childbearing age who attended ANC and had had a recent delivery. The objective was to determine the factors associated with choice of non-facility delivery among women attending ANC in the area. Data analysis was done using EPI info computer software version Most of the women (73.1%) delivered in a non-facility. Ethnicity and place of ANC were the predictors of non-facility delivery. The most common reason for non-facility delivery was that labour came without complications (58.8%). Prevalence of non-facility delivery in the area was disturbingly high. Strategies to discourage the practice should include providing adequate skilled personnel and equipment at all levels of healthcare. There should also be active engagement of the traditional and religious institutions in the area. (Afr J Reprod Health 2020; 24[1]: 143-151).

Full Text:



World Health Organization. Maternal Mortality.

Factsheet, 2016 [online] www.who.int>mediacentre>factsheets. Accessed on 01/04/2017.

WHO. Trends in Maternal Mortality: 1990-2015.

Estimates by WHO, UNICEF, World Bank Group and the United Nations Population Division, 2015 [online] www.who.int>publications>monitoring. Accessed on 01/04/2017.

Iyaniwura CA and Yussuf Q. Utilization of Antenatal

Care and Delivery Services in Sagamu, South West Nigeria. African Journal of Reproductive Health.2009; 13(3):111-122.

Shittu MA and Ekwempu CC. Factors Influencing

Utilization of Delivery Services at the Jos University Teaching Hospital Jos. Sahel Medical Journal.2012; 15(1):36-40.

United Nations. Sustainable Development Goals, 17

Goals to Transform Our World, 2015 [online] www.who.int.>sdg Accessed on 01/15/2015.

WHO. New Guidelines on Antenatal Care for Positive

Pregnancy Experience. Geneva: Switzerland, November 2016. www.who.int>maternal_perinatal_health Accessed on 01/05/2017.

National Population Commission, Federal Republic of

Nigeria, ICF International Rockville, Maryland, USA. Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey 2013.

National Population Commission, Federal Republic of

Nigeria, ICF International Rockville, Maryland, USA. Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey 2008.

Oruonye ED. Grassroot Democracy and the Challenges

of Rural Development in Nigeria. A Case Study of Bali Local Government Area of Taraba State. Asian Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences.2012; 1(1).

National Bureau of Statistics, Federal Republic of

Nigeria. Annual Abstract of Statistics 2012.

Charan J and Biswas T. How to Calculate Sample Size

for Different Study Designs in Medical Research? Indian J Psychol Med.2013; 35(2):121-126.

Akazili J, Doctor HV, Abokyi L, Hodgson A and

Phillips JF. Is There Any Relationship Between Antenatal Care and Place of Delivery? Findings from Rural Northern Ghana. Afr J Health Sci.2011; 18(1-2):62-73.

Akinyo AR. Factors Influencing Mothers’ Choice of

Place of Delivery in Soroti District, Uganda (M.A Thesis) 2009-2010.

Samson G. Utilization and Factors Affecting Delivery in

Health Facility among Recent Delivered Women in Nkasi District. (MPH Thesis) Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Tanzania, 2012.

Dahiru T and Oche OM. Determinants of Antenatal

Care, Institutional Delivery and Postnatal Care Services Utilization in Nigeria. Pan Afr Med J.2015; 21:321.

Jallow A. Why Are There Low Institutional Delivery

Rates in the Gambia? Women’s Opinion. (M.Phil. Thesis) University of Oslo, 2017.

Adamu HS. Utilization of Maternal Health Care Services

in Nigeria: An Analysis of Regional Differences in the Patterns and Determinants of Maternal Health Care Use. (MPH Thesis) University of Liverpool, 2011.

Kitui J, Lewis S and Darrey G. Factors Influencing Place

of Delivery for Women in Kenya: an Analysis of the Kenyan Demographic and Health Survey, 2008/2009. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth.2013; 13:40.

Shabnam J, Gifford M and Dalal K. Socio-economic

Inequalities in the Use of delivery Care Services in Bangladesh: A Comparative Study Between 2004 and 2007. Health.2011; 3(12):762-771.

Kamal SMM, Hassan CH and Alam GM. Determinants

of Institutional Delivery among Women in Bangladesh. Asia Pacific Journal of Public Health.2015. 27(2).

Envulada EA, Agbo HA, Lassa S, Kigbu JH and Zoakah

AI. Factors Determining the Choice of a Place of Delivery among Pregnant Women in Russia Village of Jos North, Nigeria. International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Research.2013; 2(1).

Al-Mujtaba M, Cornelius LJ, Galadanci H, Erekaha S,

Okundaye JN, Adeyemi OA and Sam-Aguda NA. Evaluating Religious Influences on the Utilization of Maternal Health Services among Muslim and Christian Women in North-Central Nigeria. BioMed Research International.2016.

Jat TR, Ng N and San Sebastian M. Factors Affecting

the Use of Maternal Health Services in Madhya Pradesh State of India: A Multilevel Analysis. International Journal of Equity in Health.2011; 10(1):59.

Shamaki MA and Buang A. Socio-cultural Practices in

Maternal Health among Women in a Less Developing Economy: An Overview of Sokoto State, Nigeria. Malaysia Journal of Society and Space.2014; 10(6):1-14.

Bhattarcharyya S, Srivastava A, Roy R and Avan BI.

Factors Influencing Women’s Preference for Health Facility Deliveries in Jharkland State, India: A Cross Sectional Analysis. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth.2016; 16(50).

Emelumadu OF, Ukagbu AU and Onyeonoro UU. Socio-

demographic Determinants of Maternal Health Care Service Utilization among Rural Women in Anambra State, South East Nigeria. Ann Med Health Sci Res.2014; 4(3):374-382.

Babalola S and Fatusi A. Determinants of Use of

Maternal Health Services in Nigeria- Looking Beyond Individual and Household Factors. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth.2009; 9(43).

Magona M, Requejo J, Campbell O, Cousens S, Merialdi

M and Filippi V. The Effectiveness of Birth Plans in Increasing Use of Skilled Care at Delivery and Postnatal Care in Rural Tanzania: A Cluster Randomized Trial. Trop Med Int Health.2013; 18:435-43.

Austin A, Bolaji F, Ana L and Nosakhare O. Trends in

Delivery With No One Present in Nigeria Between 2003 and 2013. International Journal of Women’s Health.2015. 7(1):345-356.

Moyer CA. Facility-Based Delivery in Ghana: A Three-

Part Study of Drivers and Determinants. (Ph.D Thesis) University of Michigan, 2012.

Siajabu MJ. Home Deliveries: Factors Influencing Them

and Their Impact on Maternal and Infant Mortality in Songea Rural District. (M.A Thesis) Sokoine University of Agriculture Morogoro, Tanzania. 2009.

Okeshola FB and Sadiq IT. Determinants of Home

Delivery among Hausa in Kaduna South Local Government Area of Kaduna State, Nigeria. American International Journal of Contemporary Research.2013; 3(5).

Alam N, Chowdhury ME, Kouanda S, Seppey M, Alam

A, Savadogo JR, Sia D and Fournier P. The Role of Transportation to Access Maternal Care Services for Women in Rural Bangladesh and Burkina Faso: A Mixed Methods Study. Int J Gynaecol Obstet.2016; 135(1):45-50.


  • There are currently no refbacks.