Time-to-Pregnancy and Associated Factors among Couples with Natural Planned Conception in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Eyasu Mesfin Kassa, Eskinder Kebede

Abstract

Waiting time-to-pregnancy (TTP) of couples is closely related to fecundability. Knowledge on TTP helps clinicians to individualize care for sub-fertility/infertility. Published studies on TTP are very limited in African setting. This cross-sectional study assessed TTP and associated factors among couples with natural planned conception in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Data was collected interviewing a representative sample of 1150 pregnant women. The mean and median TTPs were 6.4 (±9.4) and 3.0 months respectively. Only 11.8% (136/1,150) achieved pregnancy in the first month of attempt. Majority, 81.7% (938/1,150), achieved pregnancy by 12 months. The odds of sub-fecundity (TTP more than 12 months) was lowest in age group of 25-29 years (AOR 0.37; 95% CI 0.20-0.70). Women working more than 60 hours/week (AOR 1.87; 95% CI 1.02-3.42), who drink more than 3 cups of coffee/day (AOR 1.87; 95% CI 1.02-3.42), and whose partners chew khat (AOR 1.66; 95% CI 1.06-2.60) had significantly higher odds of sub-fecundity. Use of contraceptive implants (AOR 0.28; 95% CI 0.15-0.51) and pills (AOR 0.53; 95% CI 0.32-0.89) before the index pregnancy had significantly lower odds of sub-fecundity. This study did not consider amount, duration and frequency of khat chewing, hence its dose dependent effect on fecundability/TTP needs further investigation. (Afr J Reprod Health 2018; 22[3]:33-42).

Full Text:

PDF

References

Evers JL. Female subfertility. Lancet (London,

England) 2002; 360(9327): 151-9.

Wilcox AJ, Weinberg CR, O'Connor JF, Baird DD,

Schlatterer JP, Canfield RE, Armstrong EG and Nisula BC. Incidence of early loss of pregnancy. The New England journal of medicine 1988; 319(4): 189-94.

Stanford JB and Dunson DB. Effects of sexual

intercourse patterns in time to pregnancy studies. American journal of epidemiology 2007; 165(9): 1088-95.

Bretveld R, Zielhuis GA and Roeleveld N. Time to

pregnancy among female greenhouse workers. Scandinavian journal of work, environment & health 2006; 32(5): 359-67.

Joffe M, Key J, Best N, Keiding N, Scheike T and

Jensen TK. Studying time to pregnancy by use of a retrospective design. American journal of epidemiology 2005; 162(2): 115-24.

Tingen C, Stanford JB and Dunson DB. Methodologic

and statistical approaches to studying human fertility and environmental exposure. Environmental health perspectives 2004; 112(1): 87-93.

Zinaman MJ, Clegg ED, Brown CC, O'Connor J and

Selevan SG. Estimates of human fertility and pregnancy loss. Fertility and sterility 1996; 65(3): 503-9.

Jensen TK, Slama R, Ducot B, Suominen J, Cawood

EH, Andersen AG, Eustache F, Irvine S, Auger S, Jouannet P, Vierula M, Jorgensen N, Toppari J, Skakkebaek NE, Keiding N and Spira A. Regional differences in waiting time to pregnancy among fertile couples from four European cities. Human reproduction (Oxford, England) 2001; 16(12): 2697-704.

S. Juul, W. Karmaus and J. Olsen. Regional differences

in waiting time to pregnancy: pregnancy-based surveys from Denmark, France, Germany, Italy and Sweden. Human Reproduction 1999; 14(5): 1250-4.

Bello B, Kielkowski D, Heederik D and Wilson K.

Time-to-pregnancy and pregnancy outcomes in a South African population. BMC public health 2010; 10: 565.

Regassa N. Estimating the Fecundability and Average

Conception Wait of Women among Low Contraceptive Tribal Community of Southern Ethiopia. Stud Tribes Tribals 2007; 5(2): 103-11.

Hassan MA and Killick SR. Effect of male age on

fertility: evidence for the decline in male fertility with increasing age. Fertility and sterility 2003; 79 Suppl 3: 1520-7.

Klonoff-Cohen HS and Natarajan L. The effect of

advancing paternal age on pregnancy and live birth rates in couples undergoing in vitro fertilization or gamete intrafallopian transfer. American journal of obstetrics and gynecology 2004; 191(2): 507-14.

Wilcox AJ, Weinberg CR and Baird DD. Timing of

sexual intercourse in relation to ovulation. Effects on the probability of conception, survival of the pregnancy, and sex of the baby. The New England journal of medicine 1995; 333(23): 1517-21.

Bolumar F, Olsen J, Rebagliato M and Bisanti L.

Caffeine intake and delayed conception: a European multicenter study on infertility and subfecundity.

European Study Group on Infertility Subfecundity. American journal of epidemiology 1997; 145(4): 324-34.

F. Bolumar JO, M. Rebagliato, L. Bisanti, and the

European Study Group on Infertility and Subfecundity. Caffeine Intake and Delayed Conception: A European Multicenter Study on Infertility and Subfecundity. American Journal of Epidemiology The Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health 1997 145(4).

Augood C, Duckitt K and Templeton AA. Smoking and

female infertility: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Human reproduction (Oxford, England) 1998; 13(6): 1532-9.

Stanford JB, White GL and Hatasaka H. Timing

intercourse to achieve pregnancy: current evidence. Obstetrics and gynecology 2002; 100(6): 1333-41.

Mutsaerts MA, Groen H, Huiting HG, Kuchenbecker

WK, Sauer PJ, Land JA, Stolk RP and Hoek,A. The influence of maternal and paternal factors on time to pregnancy--a Dutch population-based birth-cohort study: the GECKO Drenthe study. Human reproduction (Oxford, England) 2012; 27(2): 583-93.

Axmon A, Rylander L, Albin M and Hagmar L. Factors

affecting time to pregnancy. Human reproduction (Oxford, England) 2006; 21(5): 1279-84.

Karmaus W and Juul S. Infertility and subfecundity in

population-based samples from Denmark, Germany, Italy, Poland and Spain. . Eur J Pub Health 1999; 93: 229-35.

Dunson DB, Baird DD and Colombo B. Increased

infertility with age in men and women. Obstetrics and gynecology 2004; 103(1): 51-6.

Mwenda JM, Arimi MM, Kyama MC and Langat DK.

Effects of khat (Catha edulis) consumption on reproductive functions: a review. East African medical journal 2003; 80(6): 318-23.

Hakim LY. Influence of khat on seminal fluid among

presumed infertile couples. East African medical journal 2002; 79(1): 22-8.

Farrow A, Hull MG, Northstone K, Taylor H, Ford WC

and Golding J. Prolonged use of oral contraception before a planned pregnancy is associated with a decreased risk of delayed conception. Human reproduction (Oxford, England) 2002; 17(10): 2754-61.

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.