Gender-Based Violence among Married Women in Debre Tabor Town, Northwest Ethiopia: A Qualitative Study

Achenef A. Muche, Adeyemi O. Adekunle, Ayodele O. Arowojolu

Abstract

Gender-based violence is one of the major public health problems in Ethiopia. This study aimed to assess the perception and attitude of the community towards gender-based violence among married women in Northwest Ethiopia. A qualitative study was conducted using the purposive sampling technique for the three focus group discussions and ten in-depth interviews among married women. Data was analyzed thematically using version 3.4 of the Open Code Software. Most of the participants perceived that gender-based violence was acceptable in the community, violent acts needed to be considerably tolerated rather than condemned. Additionally, participants perceived that the consequences of gender-based violence were mild, and its elimination was difficult. Domestic violence was found to be common, marital rape was not clearly understood, and there was no tendency to disapprove it. This study revealed that the attitude of people and traditional norms played the major role in determining the acceptability of gender-based violence on married women. Increasing awareness on the consequences of gender-based violence, strengthening of women empowerment, involving different stakeholders on the provision of education, amending and enforcing the existing laws, and providing professional help to stop or reduce violence against women are recommended. (Afr J Reprod Health 2017; 21[4]: 102-109).

Full Text:

PDF

References

World Health Organization (WHO), WHO multi-country

study on women‘s health and domestic violence

against women. Geneva, Switzerland, 2005.

Yemane B. Multi-country Study on Women‘s Health and

Domestic Violence against Women, sponsored by the

World Health Organization. Switzerland, 2003:1-28

United Nations General Assembly: Declaration on the

Elimination of Violence against Women. Edited by

United Nations. Geneva: A/RES/48/104; 1993.

Ellsberg M, Jansen H, Heise L, Watts CH and Garcia-

Moreno C. Intimate partner violence and women‘s

physical and mental health in the WHO multi-country

study on women‘s health and domestic violence: An

observational study. The Lancet. 2008; 371: 1165-

Loxton D, Schofield M and Hussein R. Psychological

health in midlife among women who have ever lived

with a violent partner or spouse. Journal of

Interpersonal Violence. 2006; 21: 1092-107.

Plichta SB and Falik M. Prevalence of violence and its

implications for women‘s health. Women‘s Health

Issues. 2001; 11: 244-58.

Romito P, Turan JM and De Marchi M. The impact of

current and past interpersonal violence on women's

mental health. Social science & medicine. 2005;

(8):1717-27.

Gessessew A and Mesfin M. Rape and related health

problems in Adigrat Zonal Hospital, Tigray Region,

Ethiopia. Ethiopian Journal of Health Development.

, 18 (3): 140-144.

Heise L, Elesberg M and Gottemoeller M. Ending

Violence Against Women. Population Report. 1999;

:1-43.

Fals-Stewart W. The Occurrence of Partner Physical

Aggression on Days of alcohol Consumption: A

Longitudinal Diary Study. Journal of Consulting and

Clinical Psychology. 2003; 71: 41-52.

Central Statistical Office (CSO), Zambia Demographic

and Health Survey 2001/2002. Calverton, Maryland,

USA: Central Board of Health, and ORC Macro.

Saidi H, Awori KO and Odula P. Gender-associated

violence at a woman‘s hospital in Nairobi. East

African Medical Journal, 2008; 85 (7):347-354.

Okemgbo CN, Omideyi AK and Odimegwu CO.

Prevalence, patterns and correlates of domestic

violence in selected Igbo communities of Imo State,

Nigeria. African journal of reproductive health. 2002;

(2): 101-14.

World Health Organization (WHO), WHO multi-country

study on women‘s health and domestic violence

against women. Summary report of initial results on

prevalence, health outcomes and women‘s responses.

Geneva, 2005.

Krug E, Dahlberg L and Mercy J. World Report on

Violence and Health. WHO, Geneva, Switzerland,

: 372.

Central Statistical Agency (CSA): Ethiopia Demographic

and Health Survey 2005. ORC Macro, Calverton,

Maryland, USA. 2006; 235-251

Central Statistical Agency (CSA), Ethiopia Demographic

and Health Survey 2010. ORC Macro, Calverton,

Maryland, USA. 2011; 60-68

Deyessa N, Kassaye M, Demeke B and Taffa N:

Magnitude, type and outcomes of physical violence

against married women in Butajira, South Ethiopia.

Ethiop Medical Journal. 1998; 36 (2):83-92.

Abeya G, Afework F and Yalew W. Intimate partner

violence against women in Western Ethiopia:

prevalence, patterns and associated factors. BMC

Public Health. 2011; 11 (913):1-18.

Deribe K, Beyene BK, Tolla A, Memiah P, Biadgilign S

and Amberbir A. Magnitude and correlates of intimate

partner violence against women and its outcome in

Southwest Ethiopia. PloS one. 2012; 7(4):e36189.

Feseha G, G/mariam A and Gerbaba M. Intimate partner

physical violence among women in Shimelba refugee

camp, Northern Ethiopia. BMC Public Health 2012;

(125): 1-10

Yigzaw T, Yibric A and Kebede Y. Domestic violence

around Gondar in northwest Ethiopia. Ethiopian

Journal of Health Development. 2004; 18(3):133-9.

Heise LL. Violence against women: An integrated,

ecological framework. Violence Against Women 1998;

(3):262–290.

Dahlgren L, Emmelin M and Winkvist A: Qualitative

methodology for international public health. 2nd

edition. Umeå University Press; 2007.

World Health Organization (WHO). World Health

Organization. Putting women first: ethical and safety

recommendations for research on domestic violence

against women. Geneva Switzerland, 2001; 18-30

Wirtz AL, Pham K, Glass N, Loochkartt S, Kidane T,

Cuspoca D, Rubenstein LS, Singh S and Vu A.

Gender-based violence in conflict and displacement:

qualitative findings from displaced women in

Colombia. Conflict and health. 2014; 8(1):10.

The Revised Family Code. Federal Negarit Gazetta of the

Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Extraordinary issue No. 1/2000. The Revised Family

Code Proclamation No. 213/2000;16-17

Yigzaw T, Berhane Y, Deyessa N, Kaba M. Perceptions

and attitude towards violence against women by their

spouses: A qualitative study in Northwest Ethiopia.

Ethiopian Journal of Health Development. 2010;

(1):39-45.

Bair-Merritt MH, Shea Crowne S, Thompson DA, Sibinga

E, Trent M and Campbell J. Why do women use

intimate partner violence? A systematic review of

women‘s motivations. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse.

; 11(4):178-189.

Swain SN, Saggurti N, Battala M, Verma RK and Jain

AK. Experience of violence and adverse reproductive

health outcomes, HIV risks among mobile female sex

workers in India. BMC public health. 2011;

(1):357.

Heise L and Garcia-Moreno C. Violence by intimate

partners. World Report on Violence and Health.

Geneva: World Health Organization. 2002: 87-121.

O‘Farrel TJ, Fals-Stewart W, Murphy M and Murphy CM.

Partner violence before and after individually based

alcoholism treatment for male alcoholic patients. J.

Consult Clin Psycho 2003; 71: 92-102.

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.